I had to use a very large depth-of-field for the landscape scene shown in the image above to render the very close foreground objects and the distant clouds with acceptable sharpness.


Depth-of-field is a concept that causes a great deal of confusion for the vast majority of photographers, and as a general rule it is the most difficult concept in photography. Most amateur photographers never master it, and for the most part even professional photographers have not mastered it with the rigor needed to explain it. Continue reading “Depth-of-Field”


What is the T-Stop?

The t-stop is a number that represents the absolute amount of light that reaches the sensor plane.

The Difference Between T-Stop and F-Stop

These two numbers are related, and understanding the difference requires a good understanding of the f-stop. I have written an entire article explaining the f-stop for your reference. Continue reading “T-stop”


What Does Equivalence Mean in Photography?

Back in the film days, nearly every photographer learned on 35mm film cameras, and this was the standard that most enthusiast and even a lot of pros used. Consequently, just about every photographer was familiar with how the 35mm film format would turn out in their final images. Digital has changed this, and we are now seeing a multitude of sensor sizes and formats on the market. This has created a lot of misunderstanding on how to get an equivalent image between different systems. For example, is it possible to obtain the same field-of-view, depth-of-field, and overall noise between Micro Four Thirds, APS-C, and full-frame cameras? Many photographers would assume the answer is no, when in fact it is possible (within certain limitations, described later). In Photography, this is known as equivalence. Continue reading “Equivalence”

Exposure Triangle

There are three parameters that control how bright an image will be, as shown graphically in image above. This is what is known as the exposure triangle, because all three of these parameters are related: adjust one of them, and the other two must be adjusted to compensate or the image brightness will change. The two parameters at the bottom control how much light reaches the sensor, while the ISO controls how sensitive the sensor is to light. Continue reading “Exposure Triangle”